عنوان مقاله [English]
Moderate approaches (social constructivism, critical theory, and the English School) emerged in international relations (IR) theory following intellectual developments and sociopolitical transformations in the second half of the 20th century. Setting the stage for new approaches to challenge positivists, these developments shaped the “Third Great Debate,” which fairly involved moderate approaches. Like post-structuralists, moderate theorists opposed rationalists and put forward their own distinct ontological and epistemological arguments against the mainstream. This comparative study sought to explore the epistemological basis of moderate approaches with regard to three epistemological concerns: the possibility, nature, and purpose of knowledge. Accordingly, the main question addressed by this study was: How do moderate approaches in IR regard the possibility, nature, and purpose of knowledge?