تازه های تحقیق
The desire to form regional alliances has been on the rise under the modern globalization trend. The shared Islamic beliefs, vast oil and gas reserves, and strategic location have necessitated strong, dynamic, and ongoing relations between the Middle East states through unions of Islamic countries. Although numerous plans for convergence have been proposed, it has not been possible to form a successful union independent of regional rivalries.
The easier access of public opinion to a large volume of information and news and the growing influence of public opinion and non-governmental actors have caused the emergence of new forms of diplomacy in the modern world, in addition to traditional diplomacy. Benevolent diplomacy is one of the new forms of diplomacy that has gained widespread acceptance among the global public. On a global scale, there is a common trend toward greater utilization of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and non-governmental actors' capacity in the cultural, political, and economic spheres.
This study aims to answer the following questions: “What is the most suitable union model for the Middle East under uncertainty?” and “What necessitates the formation of a union in this volatile region different from normal ones in other regions?”
This descriptive-analytical study was conducted based on Buzan’s regional security complex theory, the evolutionary theory, and the functionalists’ convergence theory. Buzan contends that the interests of states cannot be protected without regional cooperation; this critically necessitates the formation of a Middle Eastern regional union. Cultural similarities, on the other hand, may be the most important contributor to cooperative relationships, according to evolution theory. As a result, establishing an Islamic union of Middle Eastern charities can provide a platform for fostering regional cooperation. Furthermore, functionalist convergence theory confirms that increased interdependence among nations through transnational obligations can serve as a foundation for peace. As a result, a union specializing in altruism and founded on common benevolent goals can be extremely viable.
Results and Discussion
According to the study findings, no successful union has been formed with the participation of all Middle Eastern states to date, and existing unions have not been very successful for a variety of reasons, including the states' divergent perspectives on security and the common enemy, racism, territorial and hydropolitical disputes, and tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia, two important countries in the region. Failures of the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation are the most prominent examples.
The developments of international relations over the last few decades demonstrate the growing role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in international equations. Governments, on the other hand, are playing a smaller role, and a significant portion of charity center budgets are dedicated to issues such as the environment and global peace. Today, NGOs are influential structures in international interactions and can be viewed as cultural representatives involved in a variety of national and transnational issues in many countries.
It is unrealistic to expect the countries' differences in perspectives on cooperation and international events to be easily resolved. In the meantime, several non-governmental actors, such as NGOs and charities, whose goal is to preserve and strengthen humanitarian relations, can make cooperation the dominant aspect of their interaction and increase the sense of solidarity and shared identity between themselves and the region's nations.
An Islamic union of Middle Eastern charities has advantages over other conventional unions in international relations, including attracting the participation of a maximum number of countries, expanding the influence of benevolent diplomacy, and making it easier for countries in the region to influence their foreign policy goals, due to its characteristics of being non-political, non-military, and non-profit, and its goal of using benevolent diplomacy and soft power.
The Islamic Union of Middle East Charities serves a variety of purposes, such as branding member states to change the image of the Middle East from one of war to one of peace in the minds of nations, gaining dignity for the governments in the shadow of the network connections that will be created through this union, aligning nations by expanding the level of multilateral relations and interactions and increasing soft power in the shadow of charity governance, spreading peace and friendship in the region and the world by creating benevolent commitments for regional governments, and converging Islamic nations by focusing on Islam and the issue of charity as a point of convergence for all Islamic and even non-Islamic nations.
Economic, political, and security imperatives, as well as the need to address shared threats, are among the factors that reinforce the need for convergence and the formation of a Middle East-wide union. To form a union with the participation of regional governments. However, there are major obstacles such as divergent perspectives on security and the common enemy, racism, nationalism, regional territorial and hydropolitical disputes, reliance on trans-regional powers, and tensions between regional powers such as Iran and Saudi Arabia.
The development of soft power as opposed to hard power in the international arena, the active presence of charities and NGOs in diplomacy, and the trust of public opinion and governments in these organizations have laid the groundwork for the formation of a regional union consisting of charities in the Islamic world.
Considering its robust structure, which is comprised of influential people in the field of philanthropy in the region's countries, such a union can interact with the international community and act as an active representative of its member states in the international arena.
The three characteristics of this union being non-political, non-military, and non-profit will make it more desirable and worthy by attracting public opinion participation and providing greater flexibility to operationalize its goals, reducing its vulnerability and making it easier to exert influence on the target society. Charity organizations, as a symbol of people's successful participation in resolving the problems of countries and nations, can thus serve as a platform for the development of benevolence-based diplomacy on the international relations stage under the new conditions governing the relations between nations.
The establishment of such union helps to accomplish goals such as the promotion of a positive image of Muslim states in the eyes of the world’s nations and the unification of public opinion, the expansion of benevolent relations and higher trust between member states, the advancement of peace in the region, the adoption of tension-relieving and confidence-building policies, the reduction of misunderstandings between regional governments, and the expansion of economic relations.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The desire to form regional alliances has been on the rise under the modern globalization trend. The shared Islamic beliefs, vast oil and gas reserves, and strategic location have necessitated strong, dynamic, and ongoing relations between the Middle East states through unions of Islamic countries. Although numerous plans for convergence have been proposed, it has not been possible to form a successful union independent of regional rivalries. This study aimed to answer the following questions: “What is the most suitable union model for the Middle East under uncertainty?” and “What necessitates the formation of a union in this volatile region different from normal ones in other regions?” This study employed a descriptive-analytical approach to present a new model of regional governance titled "Islamic Union of Charities and Non-Governmental Organizations". This study also briefly discusses the obstacles to convergence and the relevant unsuccessful experiences in the Middle East. In addition to removing impediments to convergence through benevolent diplomacy, this union can use the vast capacity of public opinion and non-governmental actors to serve as a solution to the chaos at this international crossroads of events in the region.