بازخوانی پارادوکس حاکمیت و مداخله در حقوق بین الملل نوین (مطالعه موردی: بحران سوریه)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستخرج از رساله

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکتری، گروه روابط بین‌الملل، واحد قم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قم، قم، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه امام صادق (ع)، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه روابط بین الملل، واحد قم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قم، ایران.

چکیده

حاکمیت، عنصر بنیادین و قوام‏ بخش در شکل‏گیری و استمرار دولت‏های مدرن در روابط بین‏الملل به حساب می‏آید. این مفهوم، با گذشت زمان، با تحول ماهوی مواجه شده به گونه‏ای که در دوره معاصر، حاکمیت مطلق به حاکمیت نسبی و توام با مسوولیت تبدیل شده است. در این چارچوب، مفهوم اولیه و رایج مداخله و ارتباط آن با حاکمیت در حقوق بین‏الملل نیز با تغییرات جدیدی مواجه شده چنان‏چه با تفسیر مضیق از حاکمیت، مفاهیمی مانند مداخله بشردوستانه و دکترین مسوولیت حمایت، مورد تاکید قرار گرفته‏اند. در این میان، بحران‏هایی نظیر بحران لیبی، سوریه، یمن و... با تعارض منافع متکثر قدرت‏های منطقه‏ای و فرا‏منطقه‏ای، پارادوکس حاکمیت و مداخله در حقوق بین الملل نوین را نمایان‏تر ساخته است. این مقاله تلاش نموده تا به بررسی این سوال بپردازد که حقوق بین‏الملل معاصر چگونه به پارادوکس نسبت حاکمیت و مداخله، واکنش نشان داده است؟ از این رو، هدف از انجام این پژوهش که از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و استفاده از اسناد کتابخانه‌ای و اینترنتی بهره گرفته است، بررسی رویکرد و قواعد حقوق بین الملل کنونی در رابطه میان حاکمیت و مداخله است. یافته‏های این پژوهش نشان می‏دهد که در پرتو ارتباطات بین المللی و شکل گیری وجدان دسته جمعی بشری و تزاید مسئولیت کشورها بویژه تحت تاثیر وجدان جهانی سایبری، نسبت حاکمیت و مداخله در حقوق بین الملل نوین در راستای تقویت گفتمان تحدید حاکمیت به سود مداخله و تقویت گزاره حاکمیت توام با مسوولیت دولت‏ها و هم‏راستا با منافع قدرت‏های بزرگ سوق داده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rereading the Sovereignty Paradox and Intervention in Modern International Law (Case Study: The Syrian Crisis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Rafiei Basiri 1
  • Mahdi Javdani Moqaddam 2
  • Davood Kiani 3
1 PhD Student, Department of International Relations, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Qom, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor at International Relations Dep., Imam Sadeq (AS) University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor at International Relations Dep., Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Sovereignty is a fundamental and consolidating element in the formation and continuation of modern nation-states in international relations. This concept, over time, has undergone a substantial transformation in such a way that in the contemporary period, absolute sovereignty has become a relative sovereignty with responsibility. In this context, the original and common concept of intervention and its relationship with sovereignty in international law has also undergone new changes. So, by a narrow interpretation of sovereignty, some concepts such as Humanitarian Intervention and the Response to Protect doctrine (R2P) have appeared in international law. Meanwhile, crises in some states such as Libya, Syria, Yemen, etc., with the confrontation of multiple regional and supra-regional powers interests, the paradox of sovereignty and intervention in new international law has become more apparent. Hence, this article attempts to examine the question of how contemporary international law has responded to the paradox of sovereignty and intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this study, which are presented in a descriptive-analytical manner using library and Internet documents is to examine the approach and rules of current international law in the relationship between sovereignty and intervention. The findings of this study show that in the light of international communications and the formation of collective human conscience and increasing responsibility of states, especially under the influence of global cyber conscience, the restriction of sovereignty in favor of intervention has been strengthened and joint sovereignty among nation-states and transnational actors in line with the interests of the great powers has been appeared.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sovereignty
  • intervention
  • International Law
  • International Humanitarian Law
  • Armed Conflict
  • Collective Human Conscience
  • international responsibility
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