برجام؛ اعضای آن و حقوق بین الملل

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسنده

کارشناس روابط بین‌الملل در وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

در تاریخ 23 تیر 1394 ( 14 جولای 2015) ، برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک(برجام) پس از مذاکرات طولانی میان وزرای امور خارجه جمهوری اسلامی ایران ، سه کشور اروپایی ( فرانسه، انگلیس و آلمان)، روسیه، چین ، ایالات متحده آمریکا و مسئول سیاست خارجی اتحادیه اروپا نهایی شد.
بلافاصله و درست شش روز پس از این تاریخ ، شورای امنیت سازمان ملل با تصویب قطعنامه 2231 ، ضمن تاکید بر الزام آور بودن برجام، از تمامی طرفهای این توافق درخواست کرد تا تعهدات مندرج در این سند را بطور کامل انجام دهند.
با این حال و برخلاف تعهدات صریح برجام و تاکیدات شورای امنیت، ایالات متحده آمریکا از همان آغاز دوره اجرایی برجام، با بی اعتنایی به این سند الزام آور بین‌المللی، اقدام به تضعیف برجام نمود و سرانجام در تاریخ 18 اردیبهشت 1397(8 می‌2018)، رئیس جمهور آمریکا ، خروج یکجانبه کشورش از برجام را بطور رسمی اعلام نمود.
این اقدام آمریکا در حالی صورت می‌پذیرد که از دیدگاه حقوق بین الملل، برجام یک موافقتنامه سیاسی چند جانبه منضم به قطعنامه شورای امنیت بوده و خروج یکجانبه از این سند شورای امنیت توسط یکی از طرفهای آن، آنگونه که در موافقتنامه‌های دوجانبه امکان آن وجود دارد، ممکن نیست. 
بررسی ماهیت حقوقی برجام ، رویکرد سازمان ملل متحد و حقوق بین الملل به این سند و مسئولیتها و تعهدات اعضای برجام و سایر اعضای ملل متحد در ارتباط با این سند، موضوعات با اهمیتی است که سزاوار بررسی حقوقی می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Ca

 

  1. Cassese, Antonio: "International Criminal Law", Oxford University Press, 2003;
  2. Ducan,Gareth: "Common but Differentiated Responsibilities: The Implication of Principle Seven and Duty to Cooperate  on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity", Dalhousie University Law School,Halifax,Canada,2002;
  3. Flynn,Michael : "Testimony on Iran”, Joint House Foreign Affairs and Arms Services Subcommittees, U.S. Congress, 10 June 2015;
  4. Gil, Amparo Sanjose: "State Responsibility for Human Rights Violations", Review of Legal Research,No.20-30, p.305, Spring/Summer of 2000;
  5. Goldenberg,Iian: “How James Mattis could stop Trump from ripping up the Iran Nuclear Deal”, Fortune, 17 December 2016;
  6. Marandi,Nader &Hooshmand,Mohammad Mehdi: "JCPOA; A Dialectical Paradigm of Treaty and other International Instruments", Journal of Politics and Law, Vol.9 , No. 3 , Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2016;
  7. Pompeo,Mike,“Iran file”, The Wall Street Journal, 21 November 2016;
  8. Schreuer,Christopher: "State Sovereignty and the Duty of States to Cooperate – Two incompatible Notions?"(Summary and Comments) in International Law of Cooperation and State Sovereignty,Kiel,2002;
  9. Wallace,Rebecca, Olga Martin-Ortega: "International Law" , University of Greenwich, London, Published,2013;

 

Documents:

  1. Amano, Yukiya, IAEA Director General ,Statement,

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/statements/statement-by-iaea-director-general-yukiya-amano-on-iran-16-january-201716 January 2017;

  1. Chinese position on JCPOA,“China warns Trump: Iran nuclear deal must stand”, Agency France-Press, 5 December 2016;
  2. Draft rules of Responsibility of State for Internationally Wrongful Act, The text annexed to the UN General Assembly resolution 56/83,12 Dec.2001;  
  3. Endorsement of Joint Comprehensive Agreement on Iran’s Nuclear Program, S/RSE/2231, session 7488  dated July 2015;
  4. European Council, “Council conclusions on Iran”, 14 November 2016;
  5. EU foreign policy chiefs, "Reaffirmation of EU commitment to the Iran nuclear deal",14 November 2016;
  6. Federica Mogherini , the High Representative, "Declaration on behalf of the European Union on the situation in Burundi ahead of the constitutional referendum", Rome, 08/05/2018;
  7. Gholam Ali Khoshroo ,Iran’s Ambassador to the United Nations on letter " violation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) by the United States" after the U.S. Congress passed a bill extending sanctions against Iran for ten more years,7/December/2016;
  8. Great Lakes Region, S/RES/1653 (2006);
  9. Guterres, António,"Statement of the UN Secretary-General  on Implementation Day of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action", 16 January 2016;
  10. "Improving Connectivity and Security in the Region", EU-Western Balkans Summit:, Brussles,17 May 2018;
  11. ICJ, " Legal consequences for states of the continued presence of South Africa in Namibia ( South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council resolution 276(1970)", Advisory Opinion,21 June,1971;
  12. ICJ, " Reparation for Injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations", Advisory Opinion ,11-Apr- 1949;
  13. Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic republic of Iran, 4 February 2006, GOV/2006/14 ;
  14. Imposing  sanctions on Iran for failing to stop its uranium enrichment program following resolution 1696 (2006), S/RES/1737(2006);
  15. Imposing a two-way arms embargo on Iran and steps up the freeze on assets already put in place, S/RES/1747(2007);
  16. Iran's Nuclear Activities, S/RES/1835(2008);
  17. Joint Commission of the JCPOA ,Brussels,Press release ,10/01/2017 ;
  18. Joint statement from Prime Minister Theresa May, Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron following President Trump’s statement on Iran, Published 8 May 2018;
  19. Maintenance of international peace and security: Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, S/RES/1887(2009) ;
  20. Mogherini,Federica,"Iran deal, Middle East  peace  process, possibly the role of  the U.N” , quoted  in Laurence Norman and Julian E. Barnes,  The Wall Street Journal,2016, 14 December;
  21. "Post-JCPOA Business with Iran", Statement by France, Germany, United Kingdom, United States and the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy , Bruxelles, 19/05/2016;
  22. Requires Iran to cease and desist from any and all uranium enrichment, S/RES/1803(2008);
  23. "Rex Tillerson confirmation hearing", Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 11 January 2017;
  24. Russian position on JCPOA,"loss of  Iran  nuclear deal would be unforgivable", , Interfax, 15 December 2016;
  25. Security Council Imposes Additional Sanctions on Iran, S/RES/1929(2010);
  26. Statement by the U.S President on the One Year Anniversary of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, July 14, 2016;
  27. The Civil Code of The Islamic Republic of Iran;www.alaviandassociates.com/documents/civilcode.pdf
  28. The Constitution Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran;www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/ir/ir001en.pdf;
  29. The first report on JCPOA, presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament, (14/Apr/2016);
  30. The Question of Hosting Taking And Abduction, S/RES/638 (1989);
  31. "The Iranian Minister for foreign affairs interview with the Global Politico",2 October 2017;
  32. "The right of Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" Advisory Opinion of ICJ, 1951;
  33. The 2nd report on JCPOA, presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament,(16/Jul/2016);
  34. The 3th  report on JCPOA, presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament,(17/Oct/2016);
  35. The 4th  report on JCPOA, presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament,( 15/Jan/2017);
  36. The 5th report on JCPOA ,presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament, (15/Apr/2017);
  37. The 6th report on JCPOA ,presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament, (18/July/2017);
  38. The 7th report on JCPOA ,presented to the National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Iranian Parliament,( Nov 1,2017)
  39. The U.N.Secretary-General’s report on implementation of the resolution 2231,S/2017/515,(20 June 2017);
  40. Verification and Monitoring in the Islamic republic of Iran in light of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231(2015),Report of the Director General of IAEA, GOV/INF/2016/1;16/Jan/2016;
  41. Verification and Monitoring in the Islamic republic of Iran in light of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231(2015),Report of the Director General of IAEA, GOV/2016/8;26/Feb/2016;
  42. Verification and Monitoring in the Islamic republic of Iran in light of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231(2015),Report of the Director General of IAEA, GOV/2016/23, 27 May 2016;
  43. Verification and Monitoring in the Islamic republic of Iran in light of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231(2015),Report of the Director General of IAEA, GOV/2016/55, 9 November 2016;
  44. "VISA Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015" ,House of Representatives - December 08, 2015;