رویکرد دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی به خسارت معنوی قربانیان تعرضات جنسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، واحد مراغه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مراغه، ایران

2 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد مرند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرند، ایران

چکیده

هر چند ارتکاب جنایات بین‌المللی، به ویژه تعرضات جنسی به صورت گسترده باعث ایجاد محاکم کیفری بین‌المللی گردیده است. لیکن اسناد دادگاه‌های بین‌المللی کیفری موقت در زمینه جبران خسارت معنوی، تمهیدات چندانی اتخاذ نکرده و غیر از استرداد اموال موجود، تدبیر دیگری نیاندیشیده بودند. نتیجه حاصل از این نوشتار ما را بر این امر رهنمون می‌سازد که دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری در راستای اتخاذ رویکردی هماهنگ با تحولات نیمه دوم قرن بیستم در توجه به حقوق بزه‌دیدگان، جایگاهی را به آنان اعطا نموده که پیش‌تر، در هیچ یک از دادگاه‌های بین‌المللی کیفری تجربه نشده بود. بزه‌دیدگان اعم از اشخاص حقیقی یا حقوقی، طبق ماده 68 اساسنامه رم و بر طبق قواعد آیین دادرسی و ادله اثبات در دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی می‌توانند در فرایند رسیدگی دیوان به طور شخصی و یا از طریق نماینده حقوقی، مشارکت جسته و خواستار جبران خسارت شوند. به ویژه جبران خسارت معنوی که به شیوه بهره‌مندی از حمایت‌های پزشکی، روانپزشکی و اجتماعی- اقتصادی در جهت رفع نیازهای کوتاه مدت و اضطراری، بلند مدت و بازسازی روند عادی زندگی می‌تواند صورت گیرد.  بنابراین این مقاله می‌کوشد با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی حمایت از قربانیان تعرضات جنسی و شیوه‌های جبران خسارت معنوی وارده بر آن‌ها را در پرتو قواعد و مقررات اساسنامه رم مورد نقد و بررسی قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


1. Nader Akhri Bonab, 2009, "The Crime of Sexual Violence in the Statute of the International Criminal Court", Islamic Law Magazine, Vol. 13, p. 192.

2. Anne Brouwer, 2015, "The Importance of Understanding Sexual Violence in Conflict for Investigation and Prosecution Purposes", Cornell International Law Journal, No. 48, p. 640.

3. Mohammad, Assyria, 1997, Criminal Justice, Tehran: Ganj Danesh, p. 3.

4. J. Denli, 2001, Human Rights Theories under the Religious View of Human Rights (Theories and Procedures), Tehran: Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, p. 74.

5. Martin Dixon, 2017, An Introduction to International Law, Translators: Mehdi Zakerian and Hasan Saeed Kalahi, Tehran: Khorsandi Publishing House, p. 26.

6. Mehdi Fallah, 2009, "Compensation of Victims at the International Criminal Court", Journal of Crime Prevention Studies, 12, p. 117.

7. Ibid, p.119.

8. Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 75.

9. Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 75 (4) and (5).

10. Mark Ellis, 2007, "Breaking the Silence: Rape as an International Crime", Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, No. 38, p. 243.

11. Amir Pak Nahad, 2013, "Legal-Criminal Analysis of Sexual Harassment," Criminal Law Research Journal, No. 2, p. 18.

12. Mehdi Zakarian, 2014, International Criminal Courts, Tehran: Tisa Publishing, Electronic Version, p. 512.

13. Jamal Beigi, 2009, Child Victimization in Iran law, Tehran: Mizan Publication, p.p. 254-253.

14. Mostafa Elsan, 2006, "Criminology of Sexual Violence Against Women", Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 21, p. 156.

15. Cour Pénal International, Proteection des Victims et des témoins. See:

      http://www:icc-cpi.intvictims issueswitness protection.html

16. Cour Pénal International,Victims et des Témmoins, See: http://www:icc-cpi.int victims issues.html

17. Cour Pénal International,les Protection en Faveur des Victims .See:

http: //www:icc-cpi.int victims issuesvictimsreparation.html

18. William Schabas, 2010, "An Introduction to the Criminal Court", Cambridge University Press, first published, p. 879.

19. Salvatore Zappala,2005, Human Right in International Criminal Proceedings Oxford Monographs in International Law, Oxford University Press, p. 228.

20. Op. cit, p. 881.

21. William Schabas, 2010, "An Introduction to the Criminal Court", Cambridge University Press, First Published, p.p. 881- 882.

22. Salvator Zappala, 2005,  Human Right in International Criminal Proceedings Oxford Monographs in International Law, Oxford University Press, p. 228.

23. Leila Asadi, 2009, "Crime Compensation in International Criminal Proceedings", Judge Law Magazine, No. 68, p. 75.

24. Op. cit, p.  228.

25. Leila Asadi, 2009, "Crime Compensation in International Criminal Proceedings", Judge Law Magazine, No. 68, p. 77.

26. Ibid, p.78.

27. Sam Garkawe, 2003, "Victims and the International Criminal Court; Three Major Issues". International Law Review 4, p. 349.

28. Karlsson, Karen, Jay, Terazipozin and Isenathat Stefani, 2000, Mental Health of Women, Translation: Khadija Abol-Nahali and others, Tehran: Savalan Publishing, p. 135.

29. Ahmad Haji Deh Abadi, Mohammad Ali Haji Deh Abadi, and Mohammad Yusefi, 2013, "Examining the Basis of Harm in Rape Crimes with an Approach to Imamie Jurisprudence", Criminal Law Research Journal, No. 2, p. 44.

30. Hassan Anvari, 2003, Compact Culture of Speech, Tehran: Sokhan Publication, p. 156.

31. Mehrdad Rajejian Main, 2005, Advocacy Victim, Tehran: Judges Publishing, p. 87.

32. Jamal Beigi, 2011, "United Nations and Iran's Criminal Policy Against Trafficking in Persons" Ph.D.: Tehran, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, p. 274.

33. Roger Frekham, 2005, The Role of the Victim in Restorative Justice: Has Restoration Justice been Beneficial to the Victim? Martin Wright, Tony Marshall, Michael Mayes, and Others. Reconcile justice "Promoting the Axial Victimist Approach", Proceedings, Translation: Amir Samavati Pirouz, Tehran: Khalilian Publications, p. 62.

34. Mahdi Motamedi Mehr, 2001, Protecting Women Against Violence "The Criminal Policy of England", Tehran: Publishing of Obih Bazaar, p. 72.

35. Ezzat Abdolfattah, 1992, from the policy of combating goat-trafficking to the policy of defending the perpetrators, translated by Ali Hossein Najafi-e-Abbasi and Sassan Qagat-e-Qing, Judicial and Legal Magazine of the Judiciary, No. 3, p. 100.

36. Jamal Beigi, 2011, "United Nations and Iran's Criminal Policy Against Trafficking in Persons", Ph.D.: Tehran, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, p. 276.

37. Mehdi Fallah, 2009, "Compensation of Victims at the International Criminal Court", Journal of Crime Prevention Studies, No. 12, pp. 127-126.

38. M Orhant, 2002, Trafficking in Persons, Reproductive Health and Rights-Reaching the Hardly Reached. Available at: http//:www.path.org/files/RHR-Article-1.pdf, p.p.4-5.

39. Ebrahim Rajabi, 2009, Police and Citizenship Rights, Tehran: Police Science Publishing, p. 129.

40. Zahra Sediq, 2009, Violence Against Women, Shapes, Outcomes and Costs, A Survey on Special reports of the Bureau of International Affairs of Women, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, p. 194.

41. Jamal Beigi, 2011, "United Nations and Iran's Criminal Policy Against Trafficking in Persons", Ph.D.: Tehran, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, p. 278.

42. Ibid, p.p.278- 279.

43. Mahmoud Jalali and Zeinab Sadat Mousavi, 2016, "The Globalization of Terrorism and Solutions for Effective Protection from Its Victims," Criminal Law Research Journal, No. 1, p. 77.

44. P Fischer, 2003, "The Victims Trust Fund of the International Criminal Court; Formation of A Function Reparations Scheme ", EMORY International Law Review 17, p.p. 195- 196.

45. William Shabas, 2005, Introduction to the International Criminal Court, Interpreter: Bagher Mirbasi and Hamid Alhoei Nazari, Tehran: Jungle Publications, p. 194.

46. International Criminal Court, 2010, (RC/ST/V/INF.3), Registry and Trust Fund for Victims Fact Sheet, p. 1.

47. Ibid, p.4.

48. Jo-Anne Wemmers, 2006, "Reparation and the International Criminal Court; Meeting the needs of Victims", Report of the workshop held January, p. 30. 

49.  Alireza Dehim, 2001, Income on International Criminal Law: In the light of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, p. 83.

50.  International Criminal Court, 2010, (RC/ST/V/INF.3), Registry and Trust Fund for Victims Fact Sheet.

51. Jo-Anne Wemmers, 2006, "Reparation and the International Criminal Court; Meeting the Needs of Victims", (Report of the workshop held January, p.  30.                   

52. International Committee of the Red Cross, 2015, Prevention and Criminal Repression of Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Violence during Armed Conflicts, P.