روند همگرایی آمریکای لاتین در قرن بیست و یکم

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسندگان

1 استادیارگروه دیپلماسی و سازمانهای بین المللی، دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

آمریکای لاتین بعد از جنگ جهانی دوم وارد روند همگرایی منطقه‌ای گردید و در قرن بیست و یکم نیز در همان راه گام برداشته و به دنبال همگرایی بیشتر است. اما این مسیر چندان هموار نبوده و تحت تاثیر تحولات داخلی، منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی قرار گرفته و نتایج گوناگونی به دنبال داشته است. مقاله حاضر در صدد پاسخ به این پرسش است که روند همگرایی اقتصادی آمریکای لاتین درگسترش تجارت منطقه‌ای  و در توسعه اقتصادی تا چه حد موفق بوده است؟ پژوهش فعلی بر این فرضیه استوار است که آمریکای لاتین در زمینه همگرایی سیاست‌های تجاری در مقایسه با سایر مناطق جهان موفق عمل کرده است؛ اما این امر با متنوع سازی تجاری و افزایش سهم از تجارت جهانی همراه نبوده و تبعا به افزایش سطح توسعه اقتصادی منطقه نینجامی‌ده است. ادبیات موجود در این زمینه را می‌توان در دو گروه جای داد. گروه اول بر این باور است که همگرایی تجاری بین کشورهای بزرگ‌تر منطقه از موفقیت بیشتری برخوردار بوده و کشورهای کوچکتر به دلیل وابستگی به روابط دوجانبه با آمریکا و اروپا نفعی در همگرایی منطقه‌ای نمی بینند.گروه دوم معتقد است که کل منطقه آمریکای لاتین به همگرایی تجاری علاقمند است اما چون تمایلی به همگرایی مالی و اقتصادی ندارد  نمی‌تواند از مزایای آن استفاده کرده و سهم خود را از تجارت جهانی ارتقاء بخشد. برای بررسی و آزمون فرضیه پژوهش تلاش خواهد شد  با  روش توصیفی- تحلیلی  به بررسی سازمان‌های اقتصادی و تجاری آمریکای لاتین پرداخته و دستاوردهای آنان را تحلیل نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Process of Latin American Integration in 21 Century

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi ّFakheri 1
  • Masoud Hamedani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Diplomacy and International Organizations School of International Relations Tehran, Iran
2 Student of Regional Studies School of International Relations Ministry of Foreign Affairs
چکیده [English]

After World War II, Latin America entered into the process of regional convergence, and in the 21st century, it has followed the same path and has sought greater convergence. However, this path has not been smooth and has been affected by internal, regional and international developments and has resulted in various forms. This article seeks to answer the question of how successful the Latin American economic integration process has been in regional trade and economic development. The current study is based on the hypothesis that Latin America has been successful in integrating trade policies with other parts of the world. However, this has not been accompanied by trade diversification and an increase in the share of world trade, and consequently has not led to an increase in the level of economic development in the region. The existing literature in this field can be divided into two groups. The first group believes that trade convergence between the larger countries in the region has been more successful and smaller countries do not benefit from regional integration because of their dependence on bilateral relations with the United States and Europe. The second group believes that the entire Latin American region is interested in trade convergence but because it has no desire for financial and economic convergence, it cannot take advantage of it and increase its share of world trade. In order to study and test the research hypothesis, an attempt will be made to study the economic and commercial organizations of Latin America using a descriptive-analytical method and to analyze their achievements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Latin America
  • economic integration
  • Regional organizations
  • trade policies
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