اصل تناسب؛ سنتز اصول تفکیک و ضرورت نظامی در حمایت از محیط زیست در مخاصمات مسلحانه بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار هیات علمی گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

2 مدرس گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران.

3 مدرس گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

به واسطه اهمیتی که محیط زیست طی سالیان گذشته یافته و در نسل سوم حقوق بشر قرار گرفته است، می توان دریافت که چرا حفاظت از آن در مخاصمات مسلحانه اهمیتی مضاعف و شایان دارد. مسلم است که مخاصمات مسلحانه می توانند خسارات جبران ناشدنی را به محیط زیست وارد نمایند خواه این خسارات به صورت تخریب ارادی و با استناد به ضرورت نظامی و عدم تفکیک باشد و خواه به صورت غیر ارادی و ناشی از خسارت جنبی و تبعی حملات نظامی. بنابراین پرسش اصلی این است که جایگاه اصل تناسب در حفاظت از محیط زیست و در پیوند با اصول تفکیک و ضرورت کجا است؟ این نوشتار با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی به دنبال این هدف است که رابطه اصول سه گانه تفکیک، ضرورت و تناسب را که از اصول اساسی حقوق بشر دوستانه بین‌المللی هستند در رابطه با تخریب محیط زیست در هنگامه مخاصمات مسلحانه بسنجد، بر این اساس نتیجه کلی و نهایی مقاله این است که به هنگام تلاقی اصول تفکیک و ضرورت، اصل ثالثی به عنوان ستنز وارد می‌شود که به دنبال کمتر کردن خسارات ناشی از اقدامات نظامی است، نقض این اصل، یکی از شروط ارتکاب جنایت جنگی تخریب محیط زیست است و آن اصل، اصل تناسب است. از آنجا که اصول تفکیک و ضرورت به هنگام حمله به محیط زیست می توانند در تقابل با یکدیگر قرار گیرند و این اصل ضرورت است که در نهایت بر اصل تفکیک چیره می‌شود، بنابراین حضور اصل تناسب می‌تواند این تقابل را متعادل نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Principle of Proportionality; Synthesis of Segregation Principles and Military Necessity in Protecting the Environment in International Armed Conflicts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Mahmoodi 1
  • Valiollah Noori 2
  • Mahdi Abdulmaleki 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of International Law, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
2 Lecturer, Department of International Law, Shahr-e-Kord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Kord, Iran.
3 Lecturer, Department of International Law, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The increased importance of the environment over the past years and its incorporation among the third-generation human rights justify the considerable need to protect it during armed conflicts. Obviously, such conflicts can cause irreparable damage to the environment, occurring either as intentional destruction based on Military Necessity and non-distinction, or as non-intentional destruction resulting from the collateral damage of military attacks. The main research question is: “What is the position of the Principle of Proportionality in environmental protection in connection with the Distinction and Military Necessity principles?” Using a descriptive-analytical approach, this paper sought to assess the relationship of IHL’s three principles of Distinction, Military Necessity and Proportionality with environmental destruction during armed conflicts. It concluded that when the Distinction and Military Necessity principles intersect, a third principle called “synthesis” comes in, seeking to reduce the damage of military operation. Violation of this principle is one of the conditions for committing the war crime of environmental destruction, i.e. the Principle of Proportionality. Since the Distinction and Military Necessity principles can be in conflict with each other during environmental attacks, resulting in the conquest of the Principle of Military Necessity, the presence of the Principle of Proportionality can balance this conflict.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Armed Conflicts
  • Environment
  • Principle of Distinction
  • principle of necessity
  • Principle of Proportionality
  • War Crime
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