عنوان مقاله [English]
International human rights impose legal obligations for protection and implementation of human rights solely on governments, so governments have a primary responsibility for human rights violations, even if that violations accrued by the private sector, because of the government's exclusive sovereignty over the land. The purpose of this article is clarifying this issue that within the framework of universal human rights rules, individual human existence as human rights holders and governments are considered a carriers of the basic obligations that violation of these obligations cause national and international responsibility of the state. But what is the nature of these obligations of the governments and private actors? And In case of violation of obligations, what are the responsibility of governments and persons of private law based on the rules of responsibility for illegal acts 2001 International Law Commission and other national and international rules? This paper used analytical method to show some of the challenges of human rights implementation and how civil society and human rights mechanisms provide in this regard implementation of obligations of states.
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