چالش‌های حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه در قبال توسعۀ هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین نظامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

توسعۀ هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین نظامی، سبب پشت سر گذاشتن توأمان مرزهای جغرافیایی و حقوقی توسط دولت‌های صاحب این نوع وسایل شده است به طوریکه استفاده از آنها در دو بُعد ماهوی و شکلی، حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه را با چالش روبرو ساخته است که اولی ناظر بر نحوۀ استفاده و دومی ناظر بر نحوۀ کنترل این هواپیماها می‌باشد. بدیهی است ظهور چالش‌های ماهوی و شکلی در قبال توسعۀ هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین، لزوم ترجمان جدید قواعد قدیمی و تصویب قواعد جدید در زمینۀ حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه را می‌طلبد. اگرچه اصول و قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه پس از گذشت سال‌ها همچنان به خوبی ابعاد مختلف فناوری‌های نوین از جمله استفاده از هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین نظامی را تحت پوشش قرار می‌دهند، اما در حال حاضر و در آینده استفاده از فناوری‌های پیشرفته می‌تواند زمینه‌های سوء استفادۀ دولت‌های دارای این فناوری‌ها را از شکاف‌های موجود فراهم سازد به طوری که اصول و قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه نتوانند به روشنی پاسخ‌گوی آنها باشند. از این رو، ضرورت برداشتن گام‌هایی اساسی در زمینۀ ترسیم و مشخص ساختن چارچوب‌های نحوۀ استفاده و کنترل فناوری‌های نوین نظامی از جمله هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین به منظور رعایت حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه ضروری است

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