تغییرهای روابط ایالات متحده و فدراسیون روسیه در دوره مدودیف

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مطالعات منطقه ای - دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی- دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

پس از سقوط اتحاد شوروی، روابط ایالات متحده و فدراسیون روسیه فراز و نشیب‌هایی بسیار را تجربه کرده است. دوران باور به پایان رقابت طولانی مدت جنگ سرد میان دو کشور، برای اثبات تحلیل مثبت­ سیاستمداران غربی، بسیار کوتاه بود. تحولات پس از آن به سرعت نشان داد که میان برداشت واشنگتن و روسیه از صلح و امنیت، فاصله زیادی وجود دارد. از یک­سو، نگرانی روسیه در مورد جمهوری‌های پیشین اتحاد شوروی، به­تدریج با تأثیرهای ناشی از جنگ جهانی علیه تروریسم افزایش یافت. از سوی دیگر حضور روزافزون آمریکا در غرب آسیا، افغانستان و عراق، برنامه هسته‌ای ایران، استقرار سیستم دفاع موشکی آمریکا در اروپا و سپس بحران سوریه زمینه را برای رویارویی بیشتر دو کشور فراهم کرد. یک دهه پس از استقلال جمهوری‌های پیشین شوروی، رئیس جمهور روسیه ولادیمیر پوتین، سیاست خارجی عمل‌گرایی را طراحی و پایه‌گذاری کرد. دیمیتری مدودیف رئیس جمهوری بعدی، این سیاست را در مسیر "بازشروع" قرار داد که با مشکلات پیچیده‌ای روبه رو شد. پرسشی که در این مقاله مطرح می­شود از این قرار است: دلایل داخلی، منطقه‌ای و بین­المللی تغییر روابط ایالات متحده و روسیه در زمان ریاست جمهوری مدودیف چیست؟ این مقاله بر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی استوار است و به منظور بررسی سازوکارهای این تغییر از دیدگاه روسیه، به مطالعه و بررسی این موضوع می­پردازد.

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