James L. Gelvin, The Arab Uprising: What Everyone Needs to Know (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 24
Anthony Tirado Chase, Human Rights, Revolution, and Reform in the Muslim World (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012), 40-43
Michael C. Hudson, “The Middle East in Flux.” Current History 110, no. 740 (December 2011); 367.
Lisa Anderson, “Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences Between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya,” in The New Arab Revolt: What Happens, What It Means, and What Comes Next (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011). 321.
Fouad Ajami, “The Arab Spring at One: A Year of Living Dangerously,” Foregin Affairs 91, no. 2 (March/ April 2012): 61- 62.
Suzanne Maloney, “The Economic Dimension: The Price of Freedom,” in The Arab Awakening: American and the Trasformation of the Middle East, eds. Kenneth M. Pollack et al. (Washington, DC: Brooking Institution press, 2011), 68.
Kenneth M. Pollack, “Understanding the Arab Awakening,” in Pollack et al., The Arab Awakening, 2.
See an interview with Ragui Assaad, “Demographics of Arab Protests,” in The New Arab Revolt, 236- 241.
Tarek Osman, Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to Mubarak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 210.
Bruce Feiler, Generation Freedom: The Middle East Uprising and the Remaking of the Modern World (New York: Harper Collins, 2011), 112- 124.
Francis Ghiles, “A New Deal for Arab People,” Insight Turkey 14, no. 1 (Winter 2012): 14.
Marwan Bishara, the Invisible Arab: The Promise and Peril of Arab Revolution (New York: Nation Books, 2012), 78.
Al Arabiya New, “More Men Unemployed.”
“Middle East Leaders Address Unemployment in Arab Spring Wake,” Bloomberg Business week, October 21, 2011,
Ingo Forstenle chner and Emilie Rutledge, “Unemployment in the Gulf: Time to Update the ‘Social Contract,’” Middle East Policy XVII, no 2 (Summer 2010): 39.
Jon B. Alterman, “The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted,” Washington Quarterly 34, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 134.
Clay shirky, Here comes everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organization (New York: Penguin, 2008), 304.
Daniel w. Drezner, “Weighing the Scales: The Internet’s Effect on State- Society Relations,” Brown Journal of International Affairs XVI, issue II (spring/ summer 2010): 39- 41.
Michael S. Doran, “The Impact of New Media: The Revolution Will Be Tweeted” in Pollack et al., the Arab Awakening, 45.
See Clay shirky’s reply to Malcolm Gladwell, “From Innovation to Revolution: Do Social Media Make Protests Possible?” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 2 (March/ April 2012): 153- 154.
See excerpts from the interview with Nathan Gardels, editor of Global View- point Network. Christian Science Monitor, March 26, 2012, 34.
For further details on the history of Tahrir Square, see Nezar AlSayyad, Cairo: Histories of a City (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 245- 254. AlSayyad writes that much like the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, who erased the names and histories of those who came before them, Nasser’s administration changed the names of important urban landmarks and arteries. Ismailiya Square became Tahrir- or liberation- Square and King Fouad Avenue was renamed 26 th of July Avenue, after the date of Fariuk’s abdication.
Alterman, 103- 104 and 110-111.
Shibley Telhami, “Arab Public Opinion:” What Do They Want?” in Pollack et al., The Arab Awakening, 13-14.
Virginia Eubanks, Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001), 31-32.
Malcolm Gladwell, “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted,” The New Yorker 86, issue 30 (October 4, 2010),
Weal Ghonim, Revolution 2.0: The Power of People Is Greater Than the People in Power: A Memoir (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012), 190.
Guobin Yang, “New and Old Media Strengthen Democracy Together,” Yale Global, June 2009, Atlantic- Community.org,
Evgeny Morozov, the Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Fredom (New York: Public Affairs, 2011), 307-308 and 313-319.
Sherry Turkle, “The Flight from Conversation,” New York Times Review, April 22, 2012.
See Letter the Editors, New York Times, April 26, 2012, A22.
Stepen R. Grand, “Democratization 101: Historical Lessons for the Arab Spring,” in Pollack et al. The Arab Awakening, 24.
Philip N. Howard, the Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Information Technology and Political Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 156.
H. A. Hellyer, “The Chance for Change in the Arab World: Egypt’s Uprising,” International Affairs 87, no. 6 (November 2011): 1321.
David D. Kirkpatrick, “Islamist Victors in Egypt Seeking Shift by Hamas,” New York Times, March 24, 2012,
Jason Brownlee, “Peace Freedom: Diplomacy and Repression in Sadat’s Egypt,” Political Science Quarerly 126, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 688.
Tarek Masoud, “Liberty, Democracy, and Discord in Egypt,” Washington Quar- terly 34, no. 4 (Fall 2011): 126.
Michelle Dunne, “Libya’s Revolution: Do Institutions Matter?” Current History 110, no. 740 (December 2011): 370-371.
Hussain Abdul- Hussain, “Arab Spring or Islamist Winter? Three Views,” World Affairs, January/February 2012, 36-42.
Volker Perthes, “Europe and the Arab Spring,” Survival 53, no. 6 (December 2011- January 2012): 73.
Paul R. Pillar, “The Arab Spring and US Foreign Policy,” US/ME Policy Brief, July 18, 2011,
Kevin Cross, “Why Iran’s Green Movement Faltered: The Limits of Infor- mation Technology in a Rentier State,” SAIS Review 30, no 2 (Summer- Fall 2010): 183.
Thomas R. Pickering, “Implications of the Arab Awakening for US Policy in Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan,” US/ME Policy Brief, July 18, 2011,
See Anthony H. Cordesman’s comments in Anthony H. Cordesman, Barak Barfi, Bassam Haddad, and Karim Mwzran, “The Arab Uprising and U.S.Policy: What Is the American National Interest?” Middle East Policy XVIII, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 8.
Alex J. Bellamy, Global Politics and the Rsponsibility to Protect: From Words to Deeds (Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2011).
Gareth Evans, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008).
Uri Dadush and Michele Dunne, “American and European Responses to the Arab Spring: What’s the Big Idea?” Washingtin Quarterly 34, no. 4 (Fall 2011): 136.