خیزش‌های حقوق بشری و دموکراتیک خاورمیانه در پرتو فن‌آوری‌های نوین

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسنده

San Francisco State University University of California, Berkeley

چکیده

قیام‌های گسترده مردمی در خاورمیانه نمایانگر شکست روندهای سیاسی متعارف همراه با مهجور شدن نهادهای دولتی در راستای ایجاد تغییرات دموکراتیک بنیادین بود. ترکیبی از نافرمان مدنی، کنش سیاسی و مبارز طلبی زمینه را برای سقوط بی‌سابقه رژیم‌ها در سراسر منطقه رقم زد. بی‌تردید رکود اقتصادی در قیام‌های دموکراتیک بهار عربی موثر بود. کل منطقه درگیر اعتراضات ضد دولتی نسلی ناامید است که از یافتن شغل ناتوان بوده و آزادانه عقاید خود را بیان می‌کنند. یک وفاق اجتماعی علیه اقتدارگرایی پوپولیستی شکل گرفته که دهه‌ها به دنبال سوء مدیریت، فامیل بازی، فساد و سرکوب سیاسی، بود. با این وجود، آنچه که در بهار عربی نادیده گرفته شد، ارزیابی نقش احساسات، همبستگی‌ها و فعالیت‌های آنلاین است. بی‌تردید ارتباطات تکنولوژیک مدرن، فضای تازه‌ای برای بحث‌های عمومی فراهم کرد تا بتوانند خواسته‌های خود را به شیوه‌ای موثرتر مطرح سازند. در عصر ارتباطات، این تکنولوژی‌ها مرزها و موانع را از میان می‌برند و یک حس گسترده‌ای از همدردی و تعلق خاطر به یک قیام گسترده در برابر رژیم‌های ستمگر را به وجود می‌آورند. انگیزه تغییر به طرز فزاینده‌ای فضای منطقه را پر کرده و مردم را برای مقابله با استبداد بسیج می‌سازند. برعکس این دیدگاه که فن آوری‌های نوین، تهدیدی علیه هنجارها و هویت‌های فرهنگی است، این فن آوری‌ها موجب غلیان همبستگی‌ها، پیوستگی فرهنگی و هویت‌های فرا مکانی می‌شوند. هدف مهم فن آوری‌های نوین رسانه‌ای، درخواست فزاینده برای آزادی‌های سیاسی، جامعه باز و حقوق بشر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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