حمایت حقوقی از پناهجویان تغییرات اقلیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل‌ عمومی، دانشگاه هلسینکی

چکیده

با افزایش فعالیت‌های صنعتی بشر در چند دهه گذشته، الگوهای آب و هوایی کره زمین بیش‌ازپیش دچار تغییر شده است. این تغییرات اقلیمی در نقاط آسیب‌پذیر منجر به فجایعی چون بالا آمدن سطح آب دریاها، جریان‌های آب و هوایی شدید و نیز خشک‌سالی و کمبود آب می‌شود. یکی از مهم‌ترین آثار این وقایع بر زندگی انسان‌ها، ایجاد جریان‌های جدید مهاجرت اجباری است. پیش‌بینی می‌شود که تا پایان قرن جاری بیش از دویست میلیون نفر در سراسر دنیا در اثر نتایج مستقیم تغییرات اقلیمی ناچار به پناه‌جویی می‌شوند. حمایت از پناه‌جویانی تقریباً بیست برابر بزرگ‌تر از پناهندگان فعلی تحت حمایت نهادهای حقوقی، دغدغه‌ای نوین در عرصه حقوق بین‌الملل‌ است. مقاله حاضر تلاش نموده است تا با بررسی مهم‌ترین اسناد بین‌المللی و منطقه‌ای مرتبط به حقوق پناهندگان، به این نکته توجه کند که با توجه به خصوصیات خاص این گروه نوظهور‌، به نظر می‌رسد که نظام حقوقی حاضر قابلیت حمایت از پناه‌جویان ناشی از تغییرات اقلیمی را ندارد. اگرچه عمدتاً در سطح منطقه‌ای تلاش‌های قابل‌توجهی در ارتباط با این گروه از آوارگان شکل‌گرفته است، به نظر می‌رسد سازوکارهای نوینی در هر دو سطح منطقه‌ای و جهانی برای شناخت حقوق و نیز رسیدگی به امور پناه‌جویان تغییرات اقلیمی موردنیاز باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

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http://www.refworld.org/docid/521485ef4.html (accessed Sep.9, 2015)

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