. After the 1929´s Stock Exchange Crack, universal fairs multiplied : Stockholm (1930), Paris (1931), Chicago (1933), Brussels (1935), Paris again (1937), Glasgow (1938) and New York (1939).
. Aristide Boucicaut (1810-1877), marchand ambulant was considered the creator of the Greats Magazines. When he bought some small shop devoted to handkerchief Le Bon Marche in 1852 , this business man search out the formula for the success. The clients (specially female customers) could take a promenade all along the general store but® he/she was not forced to buy something. Besides prices were fixed so employees did not wasted their time in bargain the price. Consequently clients knew how much of his budget could be expensed. Thirty years later, Le Bon Marché was the greatest general store of the world. Shoping had become a sort of a legal drug! Penfornis J-L “ Français.com” ,2002, Paris, p. 74
.The so called Jardin d´Acclimatation where 400 natives figurants lived in an African scenario or a native village under the intelectual environment of the racial darwinism of the Count de Gobieau and his text Esssai sur l´inegalité des races humaines where he declared without any doubt the superiority of the arien race over the others Coquery-Vidrovitch C. (2005) “El postulado de la superioridad blanca y de la inferioridad negra” in Ferro M. “El libro negro del colonialismo”. Madrid Ed. la Esfera de los Libros, page. 796
.This was not the only one case of racist exhibition: in the United States in 1864 an American missionary bought in Belgian Congo a pygmy named Ota Benga, who was exhibited at the International Fair of Saint Louis, the National Museum of Natural History in New York and inside of a cage in the Bronx´s zoo. After being liberated by a humanitarian campaing he committed suicide.
. Decreto-Lei 13 de outubro de 1926
. The Colonial Act done at 19 March 1933 and modified by Law nº 1900 of May 21, 1935
.“The Organic Charter of the Portuguese Colonial Empire defined the juridical-constitutional frame, in a general way, as a new policy, proper for the territories under Portuguese rule, carrying out the Portuguese colonial option […] In such a way, a new imperial fresh phase is open, nationalist and centralized, as a consequence of a twofold juncture: internal and external, which can be transformed in an economic explotation [ of the] colonies.” Translation of the author
. White´s man burden
. As it was enshrined into the Administrative Decree of 1933
. A nossos descobridores fizeram umas contribuição formidavel para or progressos da Antropología desvendando a Europa a existência de populções a razas até então ignoradas Mendes Correa A. 1933: “Discurso Inagural do I Congresso Nacional de Antropología Colonial”, Porto pag 3.
. Perdido Brasil […] faz-se a ocupação efectiva da Africa, e iniciu-se por fim uma política de valorização perante a qual se inclinam já estranjeiros que não deixam iludir pelas tendenciosas campanhas pretensamente anti esclavagistas com que num falso humanitarismo que encobre sómente apetites ou despeitos, la fora se caluniam os nos propósitos mais civilizadores e filantrópicos Ibis pag. 6
. Saudo específicamente a Sociedade Anatómica Portuguesa que reunindo-se connosco, veio confirmar os lazós que unem quasi confundem mesmo anatómicos e antropológicos Ibid. Pag. 6.
. Frederick Lugard, Maurice Delafosse and Alfredo Freire de Andrade.
. Statemen of the Portugues, Government: 1º os preconceitos de raça não existiram nunca nem existem nas nossas colonias, mais do que na metropole e todos […] e indígenas das nossas colonias, gozam dos mesmos direitos , garantidos pelas leis e a constituição da República Portuguesa
As leis portuguesas sobre o trabalho indígena foi guiada por dois principios fundamentais: a liberdade de trabalho e a repressão da ociossidade […]; as nossas leis respeitantes ao trabalho foram feitas num sentido tutear e protector dos povos interessados. Todo o indígena valido das colonias portuguesas é submetido, en virtud desta lei, a abrigação legal de prover ele proprio a sua manutenção. Alem disso todo indígena válido que não tem domicilio e não exerce habitualmente nenhuma profissão, oficio ou emprego […] e que não pode invocar nenhuma razão de força major propria, ser julgado pelo curador dos indígenas ou segundo o caso, pela autoridade administrativa que poderá fornecer-lhe® trabalho, o qual nunca será inferior a três meses e não ultrapassara um ano.” Boletim Da Agência Geral das Colonias: “A questão da escravatura- O projecto de protocolo e Lord Robert Cecil e a resposta do Governo Português” Outubro de 1926, nº 16, ano 2, p. 154. Besides, since June of 1919 Portugal was a memeber State of the ILO.
. The Delegates of the Imperial powers made diferences between “natives” , “backward peoples” and to “semi” or “incivilised peoples”
. The Convention included the vague formula of captives taken in battle, debtors working off their debt, house slaves, debt peons, concubines, galley slaves and indenture slaves.
. The 1926 Convention was anmemded by the 1953 one by which all competences owned by the League of Nations were transferred to the United Nations-UNGA Resolution 794 (VIII), October 23, 1953, UNTS 182.
. ILO Recruiting of Indigenous Workers Convention nº 50, Geneva 4-24, June, adopted by ILO on April the 20th. F 1936. Date of entry in force, September the 9th, 1939.
. Article 2 of the Convention
“.The South Africa Union , refused the implementation of this Draft Convention since the use of native workers, aiming by the Portuguese east-provinces [ Mozambique ] are regulated by bilateral agreement between the Portuguese Government and the Government of the South Africa Union, specially in those aspects concerning gold-mines and its facilities. For non regulated inmigrations (spontaneous migrants) there is a 1937 Law, which covers all types of migrants but British citizens who have no restrictions at all. For all these reasons the South Africa Union do no find any necessity in implementing such Migrants Workers Convention related to Recruitement, Placement et Conditions de Travail (égalité de traitement) des Travailleurs Migrants” Geneva, (1939) p. 5.
. Article 1(a) and (b) of the Convention.
. Article 5 (2)
. Article 12.(3). This article also covered the family of the migrant worker when repatriation or in the event of his death 12. (2).
. Adopted by the ECOSOC, Resolution 608 (XXI) of 30 April 1956. International Legal Materials, Treaty Series nº 59 (1957)
. Article 12. This article reflected the environment existing in the UN realm in the middle of 50s.
. Case nº 24209/94 of Y.F. v. Turkey, Application , done at Strasbourg, 22 July 2003. Fourth Section , European Court of Human Rights.
. The San José of Costa Rica Pact, Article 5.1 “Every person has the right to have physical, mental and moral integrity respected”
. Article II 63.1.
. Article 5 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights
. Ouguergouz, F. ,2003, “The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights”, The Hague.
. Article 6.
. This crime requires setting out two ccumulative conditions: the requirement of ilegality and the presence of arbitrariness.
. Not defined into the “African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights”
. United Nations General Assembly Resoluion BUSCAR December the 10th, 1984
. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3452 (XXX) December the 9th, (1975)
. Article 15 on the ACHPR
. Article 16 on the ACHPR express the commitment of the State to ensure that their population will receive medical attention when they were sick, and by the time when Colonial fairs occured almost no one in Europe enjoyed.
. ILO Covention nº 64 “Related to written contracts of indigenous workers” Geneva, June 1939 (only applicable to contracts whose period goes beyond six months of time. Some® African countries have ratified this Convention to protected their own natives: Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenia, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leona, Swazilandia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zambia. Other ILO´s Convention were: nº 105 Minimum Age of Working (1973), Convention ILO nº 182 (1999) “Childhood Forced Worked” and the “Palermo Protocol plus Interpretative Notes to Present and Sanctionating the Traficking of Kids and Women” UNGA Resolution 55/25, November the 15 th 2000.
. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200 (XXI) of 16th December, 1966.
. Following Hannah Arend writings, it was after the end of Second War Two, when the concept of human dignity came to alive. By that time, political refugees and apatrid peoples had no right to have rights, since they were no citizens of any State. So it was necessary to create a juridical fiction, the concept of human dignity, which could serve as ground of every kind of fundamental right. Arendt H. “Los orígenes del totalitarismo” Madrid (2006)
. Netherlands vs. Parlament and Council Judgment 69/10/2001 “Principles , objectives and tasks of the Treaties”
. Günduz vs. Turkey Sentence . December the 4th (2003) paragraph 40.
. Application nº 25781/94 Strasbourg on 10 May 2001”Greek-Cypriot missing persons case”
. The extradition of citizen to Kyrgyrstan would breach of Article 3 of the Convention
. Inadequate conditions of their detention.
. Arrested in custody into a insane facility of the Enforcement Service on Clandestine Inmigration in Thessalonique-Greece.
. Conseil d´Etat statuan au contenteux nº 136727, lecture du vendredi 27 October 1992 www.Legifrance.gouv.fr.
. Conseil d´Etat nº 374508, lecture de jeudi 9 Janvier 2010 . www.Legifrance.gouv.fr.
. ILO 87 International Conference Decent Work.Inform of the General Manager Mr Juan Somavia Geneva (1999)
. Less regulations more jobs
. Jenks W, “Human Rights and International Labour Standards” , London (1960)
. Not only the enlarged freedom want, but in the primary sense of human dignity related to the conditions of working, such as non discrimination in the place of employment, or the equal work equal salary principle.
. This is not an exhaustive catalogue.
. The Salazar´s regime made the same for poor whites settlers. It was called the colonato or the erection of a Portugal in miniature in the lowlands of the Cossoi river in Angola, within of the two Overseas Development Plans (1953-58 and 1959-63). This European imported peasants would be a model for the indolents African peasants. The experiment was a failure”. Castelo C. “Reproducing Portuguese Villages in Africa: Agricultural Science, Ideology and Empire” in Journal of Southern African Studies, 2016, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 267-281.
. KERSHAW I. “Descenso a los infiernos: Europa 1914-1949” Ed. Planeta de los Libros, Madrid (2016)