تصاویری از یک نمایش: نمایشگاه‌های مستعمراتی، حقوق بین الملل و بازیگران بومی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسنده

استاد دپارتمان علوم سیاسی و روابط بین‌الملل دانشگاه مادرید

چکیده

امروزه ایده برگزاری نمایشگاه‌های استعماری، که در آن مردم بومی سرزمین‌های فرامنطقه‌ای می‌توانند عادت‌های قومی خود را در مقابل مخاطبان اروپایی نشان دهند، ممکن است ما را دچار انزجارکند. اما در دهه 20 و 30 قرن گذشته، سازماندهی نمایشگاه‌های استعماری با این هدف بود که بومیان کشور متروپولیتن چقدر عقب مانده بودند و اینکه به لطف اربابان سفید خود می‌توانستند از تاریکی و جهل بیرون بیایند. این تلاش استعماری گاهی با انگیزه‌های خوب انجام می‌شد، اما گاه چیزی جز غارت و حرص و آزار نبود. نشانی از امپریالیسم نژادی و خود برتری، و بازیگران آن (از بالا به پایین) مقامات دولتی بودند، مهاجران سفیدپوست (عمدتا کشاورزان)، جوامع مذهبی و طیف گسترده‌ای از مردم عجیب و غریب، مانند تجار، قاچاقچیان، ماجراهای ایندیانا جونز و پسران بی‌پروا.  همه آنها نقاشی زنده‌ای از برتری نژادی غربی بر مردم محلی استعمار داشتند.
در این مقاله قصد داریم بررسی کنیم که: 1. واکنش جامعه بین‌الملل (در صورت وجود) تا زمانی که این نمایشگاه‌ها برگزار شد و نهادهای بین‌المللی (به طور قابل توجهی جامعه‌ ملل و سازمان بین‌المللی کار) چه بود و چه می‌توانستند انجام دهند. اساسا برای پایان دادن آن با چه ابزارهای حقوقی روبه رو شوند. 2. در نوع خاصی از تکالیف قراردادی، که امروزه قوانین می‌توانند از سوی سازمان‌های بین‌المللی قابل اجرا باشند و یا مجاز به پیگرد شماری از جنایات باشند، کدام جنایات را می‌توان به شیوه کیفری دنبال کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pictures for an exhibition: Colonial Fairs, International Law and Native Actors

نویسنده [English]

  • Juan Ramón Alvarez Cobelas
Department of Political Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Spain
چکیده [English]

Nowadays the idea of celebrating colonial fairs, where native peoples of the overseas territories  could perform their ethnic habits in front on an European audience (who besides had payed for it), could seems nasty to us, disgusting or even more a crimen of slavery, but along side the 20s and the 30s of the last century, organised colonial fairs were at its hight to show to metropolitan populations and other Western country audiences, which were the benefits furnised  to the natives by the Metropolitan country, and at the same time, how lucky those  backward  native peoples were, who thanks  to their  white masters, could be taken out from the darkness of the ignorance. This colonial effort, was sometimes carried out in good faith, but others it was no any other  thing but looting, and greediness, a demonstration of racial imperialism and self-sufficiency, whose  actors were (from the top to the bottom) governments officials, white settlers (mainly farmers), religious communities and a wide panoplia of bizarre people, such as  traders, smugglers,  Indiana Jones´ adventures and prodigal  sons. All of them represented a vivid  fresco of Western racial superiority over the colonized local people.
In this paper we are going to examinate which was: 1st). the reaction of the  International Community (if any) by the time those  fairs were hold, and which  international institutions ( remarkably the League of the  Nations and the International Labour Organization) could have faced such degrading  spectacle, and hence its legal tools to put an end to it, 2nd.) in a sort of contrafactual exercise, which one could  be the enforceable law today, applicable by the international  bodies, entitled to prosecute such crimes,and which  crimes could  be fitted (or penal types) into such behaviours.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Colonial fairs
  • Slavery
  • Human dignity
  • Human rights
[1]. After the 1929´s Stock Exchange Crack, universal fairs multiplied : Stockholm (1930), Paris (1931), Chicago (1933), Brussels (1935), Paris again (1937), Glasgow (1938) and New York (1939).

[1]. Aristide  Boucicaut (1810-1877), marchand ambulant was considered the  creator of the Greats Magazines. When  he bought some small shop devoted to handkerchief Le Bon Marche in 1852 , this business  man  search out  the formula for the success. The clients (specially female customers) could take a promenade all along the general store but® ‌he/she was not forced  to buy something. Besides  prices were fixed so employees  did not wasted their time in bargain the price. Consequently clients knew  how much of his budget could be expensed.   Thirty years later, Le Bon Marché  was the greatest  general store of the world. Shoping  had become a sort  of a legal drug!  Penfornis J-L “ Français.com” ,2002, Paris,  p. 74

[1].The so called Jardin d´Acclimatation where 400  natives figurants lived in an African scenario or a native  village under the intelectual environment  of the racial darwinism of the Count de Gobieau and his text  Esssai sur l´inegalité des races humaines  where he declared without any doubt the superiority  of the arien race over the others   Coquery-Vidrovitch C. (2005) “El postulado de la superioridad blanca y de la inferioridad negra” in  Ferro M. “El libro negro del colonialismo”. Madrid  Ed. la Esfera de los Libros, page. 796

[1].This was not the only one case of racist exhibition: in the United  States in 1864 an American missionary  bought in Belgian Congo a pygmy named  Ota Benga, who was exhibited  at the International Fair of Saint Louis, the National Museum  of Natural History in New York and inside of a cage in the Bronx´s zoo. After being liberated  by a humanitarian campaing he committed suicide.

[1]. Decreto-Lei 13 de outubro de 1926

[1]. The Colonial Act done at 19 March 1933 and modified  by Law nº 1900 of May 21, 1935

[1].“The Organic Charter of the  Portuguese Colonial Empire defined the juridical-constitutional frame,  in a general way,  as a new  policy, proper for the territories  under  Portuguese  rule, carrying out  the Portuguese colonial option […] In such a way, a new imperial fresh phase is open, nationalist and centralized, as  a consequence of  a twofold juncture: internal and external, which can be  transformed in an economic  explotation [ of the] colonies.” Translation of the author

[1]. Dispensary

[1]. White´s man burden

[1]. As it was enshrined into the Administrative Decree of 1933

[1]. Childvillages

[1]. A nossos descobridores fizeram umas contribuição formidavel para or progressos  da Antropología desvendando a Europa a existência de populções a razas até então ignoradas  Mendes Correa  A. 1933: “Discurso Inagural do I Congresso Nacional de Antropología Colonial”, Porto pag 3.

[1]. Perdido Brasil […] faz-se a ocupação efectiva da Africa, e iniciu-se por fim uma política de valorização perante a qual se inclinam já  estranjeiros que não deixam iludir pelas tendenciosas campanhas pretensamente anti esclavagistas com que num falso humanitarismo que encobre sómente apetites ou despeitos, la fora  se caluniam os nos propósitos mais civilizadores e filantrópicos Ibis pag. 6

[1]. Saudo específicamente a Sociedade Anatómica Portuguesa que reunindo-se connosco, veio confirmar os lazós que unem quasi confundem mesmo anatómicos e antropológicos  Ibid. Pag. 6.

[1]. Frederick  Lugard, Maurice Delafosse and Alfredo Freire de Andrade.

[1]. Statemen of  the Portugues, Government:  1º os preconceitos de raça não existiram nunca  nem existem nas nossas colonias, mais do que na metropole e todos […] e indígenas  das nossas  colonias, gozam dos mesmos direitos , garantidos pelas leis e a constituição da República Portuguesa

    As leis portuguesas sobre o trabalho indígena foi guiada por dois principios fundamentais: a liberdade de trabalho e a repressão da ociossidade […]; as nossas leis respeitantes  ao trabalho foram  feitas num sentido tutear e protector dos povos interessados. Todo  o indígena valido das colonias portuguesas  é submetido, en virtud desta lei, a abrigação legal de prover ele proprio a sua manutenção. Alem disso todo  indígena   válido que não tem domicilio e não exerce  habitualmente nenhuma profissão, oficio ou emprego […]  e que não  pode invocar nenhuma razão  de força major propria, ser  julgado  pelo  curador  dos indígenas ou segundo o caso,  pela autoridade administrativa que poderá fornecer-lhe®  ‌trabalho, o qual nunca será inferior a três  meses e não  ultrapassara um ano.” Boletim Da Agência Geral das Colonias: “A questão da escravatura- O projecto de protocolo e Lord Robert Cecil e a resposta  do Governo Português” Outubro de 1926, nº 16, ano 2,  p. 154. Besides, since  June  of 1919 Portugal was a memeber State of  the ILO.

[1]. The  Delegates  of the Imperial powers made diferences  between “natives” , “backward peoples” and to “semi”  or “incivilised peoples”

[1]. The Convention included the vague formula of captives  taken in battle,  debtors working off their  debt,  house slaves, debt peons, concubines, galley slaves and indenture slaves.

[1]. The 1926 Convention was anmemded by the 1953 one by which all competences owned by the League of Nations were transferred to the United Nations-UNGA Resolution 794 (VIII), October 23, 1953, UNTS 182.

[1]. ILO Recruiting of Indigenous  Workers Convention nº 50, Geneva 4-24, June, adopted  by ILO on April the 20th.  F 1936. Date of entry in force, September the  9th, 1939.

[1]. Article 2 of the Convention

[1]“.The South Africa Union , refused   the implementation of this Draft Convention since the use  of native workers, aiming by the Portuguese  east-provinces [ Mozambique ] are regulated by bilateral agreement between the  Portuguese Government and the Government of  the South Africa Union, specially in those aspects concerning  gold-mines and its  facilities. For  non regulated  inmigrations (spontaneous migrants) there is  a 1937 Law, which  covers  all types of migrants but British citizens who have no restrictions at all. For all these reasons the  South  Africa Union do no find any necessity in implementing  such  Migrants Workers Convention related to   Recruitement, Placement et Conditions de Travail (égalité de traitement) des Travailleurs Migrants” Geneva, (1939) p. 5.

[1]. Article 1(a) and (b) of the Convention.

[1]. Article 5 (2)

[1]. Article 12.(3). This article also covered the family of the migrant worker when repatriation or  in the event of his death  12. (2).

[1]. Adopted by the ECOSOC, Resolution 608 (XXI) of 30 April 1956. International Legal Materials, Treaty Series nº 59 (1957)

[1]. Article 12. This article reflected the environment existing in the UN realm in the middle of 50s.

[1]. Case nº 24209/94 of Y.F. v. Turkey, Application , done at Strasbourg, 22 July 2003. Fourth Section , European Court of Human  Rights.

[1]. The San José of Costa Rica Pact, Article 5.1 “Every person has the right to have physical, mental and moral integrity respected”

[1]. Article II 63.1.

[1]. Article 5 of  the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights

[1]. Ouguergouz, F. ,2003, “The African Charter on Human  and Peoples Rights”, The Hague.

[1]. Article 6.

[1]. This crime requires setting  out two  ccumulative  conditions: the requirement of ilegality  and the presence of arbitrariness.

[1]. Not defined into the “African  Charter  on Human  and Peoples Rights”

[1]. United Nations  General Assembly Resoluion BUSCAR December the 10th, 1984

[1]. United Nations General Assembly  Resolution 3452 (XXX) December the 9th, (1975)

[1]. Article 15 on the ACHPR

[1]. Article  16 on  the ACHPR express  the commitment of the State to ensure  that their population will receive medical attention when they were sick, and by the time when Colonial fairs occured almost no one in Europe enjoyed.

[1]. ILO Covention nº 64 “Related to written contracts of indigenous workers” Geneva, June 1939 (only applicable to contracts whose period  goes beyond six months of time. Some® ‌African countries  have ratified  this Convention to protected their own natives: Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenia, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leona, Swazilandia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zambia. Other ILO´s Convention were:  nº 105 Minimum Age of Working (1973), Convention ILO  nº 182 (1999) “Childhood Forced Worked” and the “Palermo Protocol plus Interpretative Notes to Present and Sanctionating the Traficking of Kids and Women” UNGA Resolution 55/25, November the 15 th 2000.

[1]. United Nations General Assembly  Resolution 2200 (XXI) of 16th   December, 1966.

[1]. Following Hannah  Arend writings, it was after  the end of  Second War Two, when the concept of human dignity came to alive.  By that time, political refugees and apatrid  peoples had no right to have rights, since they were no citizens of any State. So it was necessary to create a juridical  fiction, the concept of human dignity, which could serve as ground  of every kind  of fundamental right. Arendt  H.  “Los orígenes del totalitarismo” Madrid (2006)

[1]. Netherlands vs. Parlament and Council  Judgment 69/10/2001 “Principles , objectives and tasks of the Treaties”

[1]. Günduz vs. Turkey Sentence . December the 4th (2003) paragraph 40.

[1]. Application nº 25781/94 Strasbourg on 10 May 2001”Greek-Cypriot missing persons case”

[1]. The extradition of citizen  to Kyrgyrstan would breach of Article 3 of the Convention

[1]. Inadequate conditions of their detention.

[1]. Arrested in custody into a insane facility of the Enforcement Service on Clandestine Inmigration in Thessalonique-Greece.

[1]. Conseil d´Etat statuan au contenteux nº 136727, lecture du vendredi 27 October 1992 www.Legifrance.gouv.fr.

[1]. Conseil d´Etat nº 374508, lecture  de jeudi 9 Janvier 2010 . www.Legifrance.gouv.fr.

[1]. ILO 87 International Conference Decent Work.Inform of the General Manager Mr Juan Somavia Geneva (1999)

[1]. Less regulations more jobs

[1]. Jenks W, “Human Rights and International Labour Standards” , London (1960)

[1]. Not only  the enlarged freedom want, but  in the primary sense of  human dignity related to the conditions  of working, such as non discrimination  in the place of employment, or the  equal  work equal salary principle.

[1]. This is not an exhaustive catalogue.

[1]. The Salazar´s regime made the same  for poor whites settlers.  It was called the colonato or the erection of a Portugal in miniature in the lowlands of the Cossoi river in Angola, within of the two Overseas Development Plans (1953-58 and 1959-63). This European  imported  peasants  would be  a model  for  the indolents African  peasants. The experiment was a failure”.  Castelo  C. “Reproducing Portuguese Villages in Africa: Agricultural Science, Ideology and Empire” in Journal of Southern African Studies, 2016, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 267-281.

[1]. Marrons

[1]. KERSHAW  I. “Descenso a los infiernos: Europa 1914-1949”  Ed. Planeta de los Libros, Madrid (2016)