چشم انداز فعالیت دیجیتال در جنبش مقاومت فلسطین از طریق رسانه‌های اجتماعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسندگان

1 استاد روابط بین‌الملل و حقوق بشر دانشگاه ایالتی سانفرانسیسکو

2 دستیار ارشد تحقیقاتی دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه ایالتی سانفرانسیسکو.

چکیده

رسانه‌های اجتماعی به طور همزمان مردم فلسطین را متحد کرده و شکست داده‌اند. این امر همانطور که محکومیت بین‌المللی اسرائیل را تسهیل کرده است، اما از سوی دیگر باعث خشونت و درگیری‌های فرقه‌ای شده است. در واقع شبکه‌های مجازی و رسانه‌های دیجیتال شمشیر‌های دو لبه‌ای هستند که هم برای فلسطینی‌ها و هم بر علیه آنها عمل می‌کنند. فعالان فلسطینی طرفدار فلسطین همچنان تلاش‌های بایکوت و تحریم زیر نظر دارد. آنها تبعات آن را دنبال می‌کنند و با متخصصان فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) کار می‌کنند تا حضور خود را در اینترنت گسترش داده و اطلاعات را با استفاده از رسانه‌های اجتماعی و سیستم عامل‌های جدید توزیع کنند. اگر، با این حال، جنبش مقاومت فلسطین موفق شود، باید با عواطف آزاد و همزمان متناقض رسانه‌های اجتماعی همخوانی داشته باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Digital Activism in Perspective: Palestinian Resistance via Social Media

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Monshipouri 1
  • Theodore Prompichai 2
1 Professor/Chair International Relations San Francisco State University Visiting Professor UC-Berkeley
2 San Francisco State University Research Assistant
چکیده [English]

Social media has concurrently unified and fractured the Palestinian people. It has facilitated international condemnation of Israeli occupation but also has fueled violence and sectarian conflict.  Pro-Palestinian activists continue to pursue Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) efforts and work with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) professionals to further develop an Internet-based presence and distribute information using social media and new platforms. If, however, the Palestinian resistance movement is to succeed, it must come to terms with the emancipatory and simultaneously contradictory effects of social media.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Palestine
  • Social Media
  • Human rights
  • Digital Activism
[1] Aigul Kulnazarova, “Communication and New Technology,” in Anja Mihr and Mark Gibney, eds., The Sage Handbook of Human Rights, Vol. 1, Los Angeles, CA: Sage Reference, 2014, pp. 391-409; see p. 405.

[1] March Lynch, The New Arab Wars: Uprisings and Anarchy in the Middle East, New York: Public Affairs, 2016, pp. 109-110.

[1]  Marc Lynch, “Media, Old and New,” in Marc Lynch, ed., The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, New York: Columbia University Press, 2014, pp. 93-109; see p. 94.

[1] Itamar Rabinovich and Jehuda Reinharz, eds., Israel in the Middle East: Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present, Waltham, Mass: Brandeis University Press, 2008, pp.571-572.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid.

[1] UN General Assembly, 194 (III). Palestine - Progress Report of the United Nations Mediator 11 December 1948, A/RES/194, available at <<http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fe2e5672.html>>.  Accessed June 20, 2017.

[1] UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171, available at: <<http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3aa0.html>>.  Accessed 20 June 20, 2017.

[1] "The First Intifada." The first Intifada - Al Jazeera English. December 9, 2003.  Accessed on Jun 27, 2017.

[1] Ben Ehrenreich, The Way to the Spring: Life and Death in Palestine, New York: Penguin Press, 2016, p. 35.

[1] " AGREEMENT ON THE GAZA STRIP AND THE JERICHO AREA ." Www.jmcc.org. Jerusalem Media and Communications Center, 4 May 1994. Web. June 25, 2017.

[1] Nicola Perugini and Neve Gordon, “Israel/Palestine, Human Rights and Domination,” in Anthony Tirado Chase, ed., Routledge Handbook on Human Rights and the Middle East and North Africa, New York: Routledge, 2017, pp. 419-430; see pp. 426-427.

[1] Paul Salem, “Lebanon,” in Ellen Lust, ed., The Middle East, 14th ed., Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2017, pp. 590-614; see p. 595.

[1] Kylie Baxter and Shahram Akbarzadeh, US Foreign Policy in the Middle East: The Roots of Anti-Americanism, New York: Routledge, 2008, pp. 148-149.

[1] Ibid., p. 150.

[1] Ibid., pp. 144-147.

[1] Roy A. Andersen, Robert F. Seibert, and Jon G. Wagner, 10th ed., Politics and Change in the Middle East, New York: Routledge, 2012, p. 138.

[1]  Jeffrey Goldberg, "Arafat’s Gift," The New Yorker, January 29, 2001.

[1] Staff. "Intifada toll 2000-2005." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, February 8, 2005. Web. June 25, 2017.

[1] Mehran Kamrava, The Modern Middle East: a Political History Since the First World War, 3rd ed., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2013, p. 334.

[1] William L. Cleveland and Martin Bunton, A History of the Modern Middle East, 6th ed., Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2016, p. 489.

[1] Ibid., p. 490.

[1] Hatem Bazian, “Palestine,” in David P. Forsythe, ed., Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Vol. 4, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 175-186; see p. 180.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Mehran Kamrava, The Impossibility of Palestine: History, Geography, and the Road Ahead, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016, p. 7.

[1] Ibid., p. 112.

[1] Bashir Bashir, “The Strengths and Weaknesses of Integrative Solutions for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 70, No. 4, Autumn 2016, pp. 560-578; see p. 577.

[1] Ibid., p. 578.

[1]Nuseibeh, Siham. "Israel's Apartheid Wall: Facts & Figures." Muftah. Muftah, 15 July 2012. Web. 26 June 2017.

[1] UN OCHA (Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs), ‘Barrier Update: Special Focus’, (2011).

[1] Mohammed Ayoob, Will the Middle East Implode? London: Polity Press, 2014, pp. 67-68.

[1] Ibid., p. 68.

[1] Christopher May. Key thinkers for the information society. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.

[1] Mahmood Monshipouri, Democratic Uprisings in the New Middle East: Youth, Technology, Human Rights, and US Foreign Policy (New York: Routledge, 2014).

[1] Shane Wesbrock, Mahmood Monshipouri, and Jess Ghannam, “Grassroots Sanctions: A New Tool for Domestic and International Resistance for Palestine,” in Mahmood Monshipouri, ed., Information Politics, Protests, and Human Rights in the Digital Age, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016, pp. 101-126.

[1] "What is BDS?" BDS Movement. N.p., 08 June 2017. Web. 23 June 2017; see also FAQs about Palestinian Refugees." Al-Awda: The Palestine Right to Return Coalition.  June 25, 2017.

[1] "Green Party's support for 'polarizing' boycott against Israel forces Elizabeth May to reconsider future". CBC News. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016; see also Wen, Melissa. "UC Student Association votes to divest from companies allegedly violating Palestinian rights". The Daily Californian. 9 February 2015; see also "COSATU Endorses the Palestinian Call to Impose an Immediate, Comprehensive Military Embargo on Israel". BDSmovement. 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2016.

[1] "Janna Jihad." Facebook - Log In or Sign Up. June 25, 2017.

[1] NexelSeven. "My Blood is Palestinian (Dami Falasteeni) Translation." YouTube. YouTube, 14 Oct. 2015. Web. 27 June 2017.

[1] "Quds News Network." Facebook - Log In or Sign Up. June 25, 2017.

[1] Nadim Nashif, "Israel-Palestine: Social Media As a Tool Of Oppression." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 18 Apr. 2016. June 18, 2017.

[1] Gadi Wolfsfeld, Elad Segev, and Tamir Sheafer. "Social Media and the Arab Spring." The International Journal of Press/Politics 18.2 (2013): 115-37. June 25, 2017.

[1] "Orit Perlov." INSS. June 27, 2017.

[1] Philip N. Howard, The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Information Technology and Political Islam, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 156.