مسئولیت دولت و بخش خصوصی در قبال حقوق بشر

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه بجنورد

چکیده

حقوق بشر بین‌المللی، تعهدات حقوقی را برای حمایت و اجرای حقوق بشر صرفاً بر دولت‌ها تحمیل می‌کند. بنابراین، دولت‌ها مسئولیت اولیه در برابر نقض حقوق بشر حتی توسط بخش خصوصی به دلیل حاکمیت انحصاری بر سرزمین دارند. هدف مقاله پیش روی، مشخص ساختن این موضوع است که در چارچوب قواعد حقوق بشر بین‌المللی، موجودیت‌های انسانی منفرد به عنوان صاحبان حقوق بشر هستند وحکومت‌ها حاملان تعهدات اساسی در نظر گرفته شده‌اند که نقض این تعهدات موجب مسئولیت بین‌المللی آن‌ها می‌شود. اما ماهیت تعهدات دولت‌ها و اشخاص حقوق خصوصی چیست و در صورت نقض تعهدات، مسئولیت دولت‌ها و اشخاص حقوق خصوصی براساس قواعد مسئولیت برای اعمال غیر قانونی2001 کمیسون حقوق بین الملل و سایر قواعد بین‌المللی حقوق بشر چگونه احراز می‌گردد؟ مقاله با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی با شناسایی مواردی از چالش‌های اجرای حقوق بشردر صدد است نشان دهد چگونه جامعه مدنی و مکانیزم‌های حقوق بشر زمینه اجرای تعهدات دولت‌ها را در این راستا فراهم می‌سازند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Responsibilities of Government and Private Sector toward Human Rights

نویسنده [English]

  • Rauf Rahimi
Faculty of Law & Political Sciences, University of Bojnord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

International human rights impose legal obligations for protection and implementation of human rights solely on governments, so governments have a primary responsibility for human rights violations, even if that violations accrued  by the private sector, because of the government's exclusive sovereignty over the land. The purpose of this article is clarifying this issue that within the framework of universal human rights rules, individual human existence as human rights holders and governments are considered a carriers of the basic obligations that violation of these obligations cause national and international responsibility of the state. But what is the nature of these obligations of the governments and private actors? And In case of violation of obligations, what are the responsibility of governments and persons of private law based on the rules of responsibility for illegal acts 2001 International Law Commission and other national and international rules? This paper used analytical method to show some of the challenges of human rights implementation and how civil society and human rights mechanisms provide in this regard implementation of obligations of states.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Middle Human Rights
  • obligations
  • Responsibility
  • State
  • private sector

 

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