افراط‌گرایی خشونت‌آمیز در ساحل غربی: داستانی قدیمی با مفاهیم معاصر

نوع مقاله: مقاله مستقل پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ و فلسفه فدانشگاه نونتانا، بوزان، ایالات متحده امریکا

چکیده

خشونت گسترده و طولانی مدت اسلام گرایان در ساحل غربی، سوالات مربوط به تاریخ این پدیده را مطرح می کند. این مطالعه به مقایسه ستیزه جویی اسلامی به رهبری دن فودیو (سوکوتو) و ال. حاج عمر تال (توکولور) در طول قرن نوزدهم و با بوکوحرام به رهبری محمد یوسف از سال 2002 می‌پردازد. منطقه مورد بررسی در این تحقیق به ایالات نیجریه، نیجر، چاد، بورکینافاسو، کامرون، گینه و سنگال محدود شده است. نشان دادن ارتباط بین دو دوره زمانی که این پدیده در شدید ترین حال بوده است، الگوهای کلیدی ایدئولوژیک و روش های شناختی را ظاهر می سازد. توجه به انگیزه، روش و راه هایی که جنبش های پیشین منحل شدند، الگویی برای اقدامات موثر ضد تروریسم ارائه می سازد

کلیدواژه‌ها


[1] Mohammed Aly Sergie and Toni Johnson, “Boko Haram, “Council on Foreign Relations, March 5, 2015, https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/boko-haram;  “Nigeria: Events of 2016,” Human Rights Watch, World Report 2017, no signature. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017/country-chapters/nigeria; “Who are Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamist Group,” BBC News, November 24, 2016, no signature. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501; “Boko Haram attacks blamed for deaths in Nigeria, Chad,”AlJazeera, June 26, 2017, no signature. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/boko-haram-attacks-blamed-deaths-nigeria-chad-170626140339123.html.

2 Scholars of the Islamic world including most famously, Marshall G.S. Hodgson and John Esposito, have demonstrated the complexity of the term “jihad” within Islamic societies.  According to Hodgson, the expression did not always signify violent conflict, but could simply have been a philosophical “struggle” against an external force.  Hodgson defines jihad in the following way: “war in accordance with the Shari’ah against unbelievers; there are different opinions as to the circumstances under which such war becomes necessary.  Also applied to a person’s own struggle against his baser impulses.” For more on the nuances of jihad, see Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1974), 75, 269, 292, 515; and John Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

3 For just two examples of this argument paradigm, see Murray Last, “The Search for Security in Muslim Northern Nigeria,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute78, No. 1 (2008): 41-63 and Abimbola O. Adesoji, “Between Maitatsine and Boko Haram: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Response of the Nigerian State,” Africa Today57, No. 4 (2011): 99-119.

4 Daniel Egiegba Agbiboa, “Briefing: Why Boko Haram Exists: The Relative Deprivation Perspective,” African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, 3, No. 1 (Spring 2013):144-157.

5 “Nigeria: Dozens of Girls Kidnapped,” The New York Times, April 15, 2014. http:www.nytimes.com/2014/04/16/world/africa/nigeria-dozens-of-girls-kidnap ped.

6 “Who are Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamist Group,” BBC News, November 24, 2016, no signature. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501; Sergie and Johnson, “Boko Haram.”

7 Omar S. Mahmood, “Abu Musab Al-Barnawi: Ideals vs. Reality,” Maghreb and Sahel, April 19, 2017.

8 “Boko Haram stages deadly attacks Maiduguri,” Aljazeera, June 8, 2017. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/boko-haram-stages-deadly-attacks-maiduguri-170608124920187.html; “Boko Haram attack on Nigeria oil team killed more than 50,” The Telegraph, July 27, 2017. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/07/28/boko-haram-attack-nigeria-oil-team-killed-50/

9 “Boko Haram blamed for deaths in Nigeria, Chad,” Aljazeera, June 26, 2017. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/boko-haram-attacks-blamed-deaths-nigeria-chad-170626140339123.html.

10 Sani Tukur. “Shocking Revelation: 100,000 Killed, Two Million Displaced by Boko Haram Insurgency, Borno Governor Says.” Premium Times, February 13; Council on Foreign Relations. “Boko Haram in Nigeria.” Global Conflict Tracker, Council on Foreign Relations, September 5, 2018; Council on Foreign Relations. “Boko Haram in Nigeria.” Global Conflict Tracker, Council on Foreign Relations, May 14, 2019.

11 “The Resurgence of Boko Haram,” Stratfor, December 6, 2016, no signature. https://worldview.stratfor.com/the-hub/resurgence-boko-haram; United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel, June 30, 2017; “Boko Haram attacks blamed for deaths in Nigeria, Chad,” AlJazeera, June 26, 2017, no signature. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/boko-haram-attacks-blamed-deaths-nigeria-chad-170626140339123.html; Kenneth Roth, “Nigeria: Events of 2016,” World Report 2017, Human Rights Watch, undated.

12 United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel, June 30, 2017.

13 Ibid.

14 “Burkina Faso forces end restaurant attack; 18 killed,” Associated Press, August 14, 2017. http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/burkina-faso-forces-end-restaurant-attack-18-killed/ar-AAq27eN?li=AA4Zpp&ocid=spartandhp; “Deadly Attacks Target U.N. Mission in Timbuktu, Mali,” BBC, August 14, 2017.   http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-40931832; “The World’s Most Dangerous U.N. Mission,” The Washington Post, February 17, 2017. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/world/2017/02/17/the-worlds-deadliest-u-n-peacekeeping-mission/?utm_term=.037acd25dcd3; United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel, June 30, 2017.

15 United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel, June 30, 2017.

16 F. Daniel, “Shehu Dan Fodio,” Journal of the Royal African Society25, No. 99 (1926):278-83; C.C. Stewart, “Frontier Disputes and Problems of Legitimation: Sokoto-Masina Relations 1817-1838,” The Journal of African History17, No. 4 (1976): 497-514; Abubakar Sa‘ad, “The Emirate-Type Government in the Sokoto Caliphate,” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria7, No. 2 (1974): 211-229.

17 Sa’ad; Michael Mason, “Population Density and ‘Slave Raiding’ – The Case of the Middle Belt of Nigeria,” The Journal of African History10, No. 4 (1969):551-564.

18 See J. Spencer Trimingham, A History of Islam in West Africa (New York, Oxford University Press, 1959); Nehemia Levtzion, Muslims and Chiefs in West Africa: A Study of Islam in Middle Volta Basin in the Pre-Colonial Period(New York: Oxford University Press, 1969); Philip Curtin, “Jihad in West Africa: Early Phases and Inter-Relations in Mauritania and Senegal,” The Journal of African History12, No 1 (1971): 11-24; and David Robinson, The Holy War of Umar Tall: The Western Sudan in the mid-Nineteenth Century(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985).

19 Trimingham; Nehemia Levitzion, Muslims and Chiefs in West Africa: A Study of Islam in Middle Volta Basin in the Pre-Colonial Period(New York: Oxford University Press, 1969).

20 Nikki R. Keddie, “The Revolt of Islam,1700 to 1993: Comparative Considerations and Relations to Imperialism,” Comparative Studies in Society and History36, No. 3 (1994): 463-487.

21 Ibid.; Sa‘ad.

22 Robinson, The Holy War of Umar Tall, 3,4,36, 124, 139, 161-172, 190-191, 207, 212, 217, 232, 240-241; Barnett Singer, “A New Model Imperialist in French West Africa,” The Historian56, No 1 (Autumn, 1993): 69-86. 

23 Keddie, p. 477.

24 C.C. Stewart, “Frontier Disputes and Problems of Legitimation: Sokoto-Masina Relations 1817-1837,” The Journal of African History17, No. 4 (1976): 497-514.

25 Agbiboa.

26 The World Bank Statistics for Nigeria, 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria.

27 “Nigeria Economic Outlook,” Focus Economics, August 4, 2017.  http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/nigeria.

28 Agbiboa.

29 www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nigeria/Religion; Salisu Bala, “History of Origin Spread and Development of Tijaniyyah Sufi Order in Hausaland: The Case of Zaria City, Circa, 1831-1933,” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria20 (2011): 201-208, p. 205.

30 Robert S. Snyder, "Hating America: Bin Laden as a Civilizational Revolutionary," The Review of Politics 65, No. 4 (2003): 325-49.

31 Keddie; Jamil Abun-Nasr, “Some aspects of the Umari ranch of Tijaniyya,” The Journal of African History3, No. 2 (1962): 329-331.

32 Michael Mason, “Population Density and ‘Slave Raiding’ – The Case of the Middle Belt of Nigeria,” The Journal of African History10, No. 4, 1969: 551-564; Murray Last, “A Note on Attitudes to the Supernatural in the Sokoto JIHAD,” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria4, No. 1, 1967:3-13; Sa’ad; Keddie; and Abun-Nasr.

33 Last; William F.S. Miles, “Shari‘a as De-Africanization: Evidence from Hausaland,”  Africa Today 50 No.1, (2003):51-75.

34 Snyder.

35 Last, “The Search for Security in Muslim Nigeria,” pp. 41-42; John Ralph Willis, «Jihad fi Sabil Allah – Its Doctrinal Basis in Islam and Some Aspects of its Evolution in Nineteenth-Century West Africa, The Journal of African History 8, No. 3 (1967): 395-415.

36 El-Masri; Last, “A Note on Attitudes to the Supernatural in the Sokoto Jihad; Last, “The Search for Security in Muslim Nigeria,”; Paul E. Lovejoy and J.S. Hogendorn, “Revolutionary Mahdism and Resistance to Colonial Rule in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1905-06,” The Journal of African History, 31, No. 2, (1990):217-244.

37 Snyder, 342.

38 Leland Barrows, “Faidherbe and Senegal: A Critical Discussion,” African Studies Review 19:1 (April 1976): 95-117, p. 102. 

39 Willis, 396, 408-409.

40 Adesoji, 105-106; Rasheed Oyewole Olaniyi, “Hisbah and Sharia Law Enforcement in Metropolitan Kano,” Africa Today57, No 4 (Summer 2011): 71-96; and Willis, 396, 399.

41 Alex Thurston, ‘The Disease is Unbelief’: Boko Haram’s religious and political worldview,” The Brooking Institution, The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic WorldNo 22 (January 2016), p. 15.

42 Keddie, 478.

43 Robinson, The Holy War of Umar Tall, 3,4,36, 124, 139, 161-172, 190-191, 207, 212, 217, 232, 240-241; Barnett Singer, “A New Model Imperialist in French West Africa,” The Historian56, No 1 (Autumn, 1993): 69-86.  For more on the campaigns and ultimate death of Tall in 1864, see Robinson, The Holy War of Umar Tall, chapters 7-9. 

44 Keddie, 468-469; Robinson, “The Umarian Emigration of the Late Nineteenth Century,” The International Journal of African Historical Studies20, No. 2 (1987): 245-270, pp. 249-250, 257-258; Miles, p. 53; and Lovejoy and Hogendorn, 217-222.

45 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=3050.

46 Snyder, 329.

47 Ibid., 336.

48 Last, 59.

49 Ahmad Salkida, “Nigeria Sect Leader Vows Revenge,” All Africa, July 27, 2009. (telephone interview conducted between “Daily Trust” reporter and Mohammad Yusuf).

50 Ogbu U. Kalu, “Safiyya and Adamah: Punishing Adultery with Sharia Stones in Twenty-First-Century Nigeria,” African Affairs102, No. 408 (2003):389-408.