ضرورت بازنگری ماموریت کمیته بین‌المللی صلیب سرخ: از کاهش آلام انسانی تا پیشگیری از خشونت‌های مسلحانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستخرج از رساله

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق‌بین‌الملل عمومی، گروه تخصصی حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کمیته بین‌المللی صلیب سرخ به طورکلی بر جسته‌ترین بازیگر حقوق بین‌الملل بشر‌دوستانه و متولی صیانت از بشر در خشونت‌های مسلحانه است لیکن عملکرد سازمان به سه دلیل، نارسا است: منصرف نمودن حقوق‌ بشر از شرح وظایف، تمرکز بر مفهوم کلاسیک جنگ و تکیه بر اصل محرمانه بودن اطلاعات برای تضمین حضور در مناطق بحرانی؛ چنین رهیافتی در پیش‌گیری از وقوع جرائم بین‌المللی بی‌فایده و از حیث ترمیم وضعیت قربانیان و تثبیت عدالت انتقالی کم اثر است. صلیب‌سرخ در محقق ساختن غایات خود بسیار محتاط است و گاه نقض قاعده را در معرض داوری افکار عمومی بین‌المللی قرار نمی‌دهد‌ و اگرچه در اجرای اشتغالات میدانی برای رفع ایراد تلاش می‌کند اما سوال اصلی این است که آیا بدون اصلاح دستورالعمل‌های سازمانی، امکان رفع نواقص وجود خواهد داشت؟
این مقاله بر اساس روش‌های تحقیق عملی و کتابخانه‌ای با نقد عملکرد سازمان و توجه به روح اسناد حقوقی بین‌المللی بشر و ‌بشر‌دوستانه و حقوق‌ بین‌الملل‌ کیفری به هدف نمایاندن نارسایی‌ها و نتیجتا تبیین لزوم انطباق نگرش و عملکرد سازمان با ابزار و اهداف متغیر در خشونت‌های مسلحانه معاصر تدوین شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Need to Reconsider the Mission of the International Committee of Red Cross: From Reducing Human Suffering to Preventing Armed Violence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Hosein Mehrgan 1
  • Ardeshir Amir Arjmand 2
  • Ali Hanji 2
1 PhD Student in Public and International Law Dep., Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The ICRC is the most prominent international humanitarian rights actor in charge of the protection of human beings in armed violence, but the organization's performance is flawed for three reasons: Deviate human rights from duty descriptions, focus on the classic concept of war, and rely on the principle of confidentiality of information to ensure presence in critical areas; Such an approach is useless in preventing international crimes and ineffective in restoring the situation of victims and establishing transitional justice. ICRC is very cautious in achieving its goals and sometimes does not expose violations of the rule to international public opinion, although it tries hard to resolve the issue in the field, but the main question is whether it will be possible to fix the shortcomings without modifying the organizational instructions? This article is based on practical and library research methods, criticizing the performance of the organization with regard to the spirit of international human, humanitarian and criminal law documents to show the shortcomings and the need to change the attitude and performance of the organization towards evolving tools and goals of contemporary armed violence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "humanitarian rights"
  • "ICRC"
  • "peace and security"
  • "armed conflicts"
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