عملکرد نظام امنیت جمعی سازمان ملل متحد؛ توسل به زور با تجویز شورای امنیت

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی مستقل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی مقطع دکتری حقوق بین الملل، گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه حقوق، دانشگاه پیام نور، البرز، ایران.

چکیده

منشور ملل متحد دو نوع نظام امنیت جمعی را به رسمیت شناخته است. نظام امنیت جمعی مندرج در ماده (51) منشور در رابطه با حق دفاع مشروع دولتها و همچنین توسل به زور با تجویز شورای امنیت. توسل به زور با تجویز شورای امنیت، ریشه در سازکار مشابه، در میثاق جامعه ملل دارد که البته با تحولاتی همراه بوده است. امروزه با تداوم وقوع مخاصمات بینالمللی، سیستم امنیت جمعی ملل متحد به چالش کشیده شده و کارآمدی این ساختار مورد انکار یا تردید قرار گرفته است؛ هدف از این مقاله شناخت سازکار توسل به زور با تجویز شورای امنیت سازمان ملل و همچنین بررسی انتقادات مطرح شده بر این سازکار است. پرسش کلیدی مقاله آن است که :« عملکرد سیستم امنیت جمعی سازمان تا به حال چگونه ارزیابی میشود و چه انتقاداتی به آن مطرح شده است؟». این مقاله حائز ماهیت پژوهشی کیفی بوده و از حیث روش شناسی نیز توصیفی –تحلیلی میباشد. مقاله در سه بخش اصلی، به شناخت مفهومی نظام امنیت جمعی، بررسی سیر تحولات این سیستم و تحلیل جامع انتقادات مطرح شده بر این سازکار پرداخته است و در نهایت این نتیجه حاصل شده که علیرغم برخی کاستیها، سازکار توسل به زور شورای امنیت در برخی موارد کارآمد نمایان شده و میتواند از مشارکت دیگر تابعین حقوق بینالملل نیز بهره جوید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Functioning of the United Nations Collective Security System; The use of Force Authorized by the Security Council

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Akefi Ghaziani 1
  • Moosa Akefi Ghaziani 2
1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
2 Assistant Professor ,Department of Law, Payame Noor University, Alborz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The Charter of the United Nations recognizes two types of collective security systems (CSS); the security system under Article (51) regarding the States' right to collective self-defense and also the Use of Force authorized by the Security Council. The UN's CSS, besides small alterations, has its roots in a similar system which was defined in the Covenant of the League of Nations. The continuity of occurrence of international armed conflicts today has challenged this system and its efficiency. This article aims to understand this mechanism of use of force and to review the criticism raised on this mechanism. The main question is: "How the performance of this system is assessed and what are the main criticisms of it?". This article has a qualitative research nature and is of a descriptive-analytical methodology. It is written in three main sections, it deals with the conceptual understanding of the collective security system, examines the evolution of this system and a comprehensive analysis of the criticisms of this mechanism. Finally, it has been concluded that, despite some shortcomings, the mechanism for resorting to Security Council force has been shown to be effective in some cases and could benefit from the participation of other international law enforcement officials.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • " Collective Security System"
  • "United Nations"
  • "Use of Force"
  • "Security Council"
  • "Aggression"
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